In otherwise healthy adults given betaine supplementation at 4g daily for a period of six months, there was no significant influence on organ function biomarkers (kidney and liver) nor any significant influence on lipid profiles. Homocysteine was actually not significantly affected, as the 12% difference between groups (increase in placebo, stasis in supplementation) faile to reach statistical significance.
An increase was noted in apolipoprotein A1 and PAI-1.
Betaine Supplementation Decreases Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations But Does Not Affect Body Weight, Body Composition, Or Resting Energy Expenditure In Human Subjects
In obese subjects given supplementation of betaine at 6g daily for 12 weeks was able to decrease homocysteine (9%) relative to placebo but the decrease in total cholesterol and LDL seen in placebo was not present in betaine intervention; there was no influence on body weight. There was no influence on plasma nor RBC folate concentrations.
The increase in ALP (liver enzyme) seen in placebo was prevented with betaine.
Effect Of Homocysteine-lowering Nutrients On Blood Lipids: Results From Four Randomised, Placebo-controlled Studies In Healthy Humans
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This study (actually a collection of four trials, three of which assessed TMG supplementation at 6g daily) noted that supplementation is able to reduce homocysteine concentrations but can also increase total cholesterol (8%) mostly due to an increase in LDL cholesterol (11%) and also caused an increase in triglycerides (13%) without altering HDL-C levels.